Skip to main content

Who was Harry Nyquist?

Dear Members and constituents,
Ever wonder why a T-1 has 1,536 Kilobits per second of capacity? Why not a round number? Even if you were to use Kilobytes per second you'd come up with 192 KB per second. In case you were wondering, it all comes down to the dawn of digital voice communications. In order to reconstruct a sound, the samples taken can be no less than half of the frequency of the sound we are trying to represent. In normal conversation the human voice seldom exceeds 16 KHz and therefore sampling it 8,000 times per second would be sufficient for both sides to understand each other. They also decided 256 levels (8 bits) per sample provided sufficient information. Of course 8,000 samples per second at 8 bits per sample provide us with 64,000 bits per second, the bandwidth of a phone call. That is, of course, why your voice on a phone conversation sounds a little "tinny" and does not have quite the quality of, say, a CD. You take 24 of these together and, voilĂ , you have a DS-1.


Lately I have been wondering what the energy capacity of a dozen donuts is and how you would express it. I like the idea of expressing it in Kilobites, however that would probably be a measure of how filling a dozen donuts is, not exactly a measure of energy potential. I'm sure you coud take the mass of each donut and multiply it by the calories per mass unit and then add it up… then again, perhaps some things are better left unquantified. Speaking of quantities, due to their reputation for having a smaller size, Mr. Bagnato has proactively brought in five dozen Krispy Kreme dounts. In looking at the selection he made for this his debut, I think we can expect many good Fridays from Jim.


Happy Friday!

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Donut Hole Alignment

Friends, My predawn attempts to watch the planetary alignment have thus far been met with cloudy skies. The weather forecast through the end of the cosmic event suggests I shall not witness it. And yet, my futile attempts have been rewarded in other ways. The chorus of birds, frogs and insects singing in anticipation of the sun’s glorious rising complement the river’s steady churning. The crisp, fresh air in a desolate town whose citizens are still bidding Morpheus “adieu” caresses my skin while the sweet aroma of petrichor fills my lounges. Deep shadows of centenarian eucalyptus trees slowly recede and give way to the imperceptible progress of the brightening skies. Sure, witnessing those tiny bright spots lined-up in the sky would be pretty cool —like sprinkles on a donut. Speaking of donuts, if you’re ever in Cuenca around the feast of Corpus Christi (which ended yesterday) you need to try the Huevos Chilenos (Chilean Eggs) —think of them as less sweet donut holes. And, if like me t

Donut Doodle Dandy

Dear Members and Constituents, In trying to figure-out Wednesday’s cool-looking Google Doodle ( Jorge Luis Borges’ 112 th birthday ), I stumbled across a list of Google Doodles you’ll never see. This, and a Rockies game later that day, were sufficient inspiration to get my head spinning around what other doodles Google might never noodle? I’m sure you’ll probably have a few ideas of your own, but I was able to come-up with a couple. How about a former Colorado Rockies player whose unfortunate encounter with a moth put him in the news this week? The Matt Holliday doodle might look something like this… Another item which, surprisingly enough, has not been made into a doodle are donuts. Although I was slightly taken aback to find this delicious pastry has not been featured, after the initial disappointment, I decided to take matters into my own hands and take a stab at one (perhaps Google can use it next year for national donut day )… or to celebrate Greek police having “ blown a ho

Donuts Without Borders

Friends, I believe going anywhere in the world (so long as you abide by the local laws) should be a human right. People should be allowed to wander freely (or vote with their feet whenever a government alienates them). In this, I fully support Doctors Without Borders’ decision to no longer accept funding from the EU due to their immigration policies. Good for them! That said borders can be useful. Take, for instance national sports teams. If there were no borders, events like the summer and winter Olympiads would not exist. Closer to home, those of you who follow soccer are probably tuning-in to the hundredth edition of Copa America , currently under way. Last night the quarter final opener featured both of the teams for which I've been rooting. Who do you cheer for when you know only one of your teams will advance? You can't root for both or you risk becoming a dispassionate observer, so, you either pick one or choose to narrate the game in English (i.e. no 100 MPH narra